The modern, western diet is high in processed foods, leading to most people struggling to consume their recommended daily fibre intake of 25-30g for an average sized adult, according to The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Poor fibre intake results in people feeling unsatisfied, bloated and, worst of all, irregular. Including high fibre cereals made from wheat bran into your daily routine, is a simple way to increase your daily fibre intake. Let’s take a closer look at the key ingredient wheat bran and the additional health benefits it has to offer.
WHAT IS WHEAT BRAN?
A wheat kernel is made up of three parts; the bran, endosperm and the germ. Wheat Bran is the hard outside layer of the kernel, as can be seen in the image below, which is usually separated from the other parts of the kernel by milling. It is an indigestible plant component and is therefore where almost all of the fibre within the grain comes from, typically containing approximately 45% of dietary fibre, of which more than 90% is insoluble fibre. It is one of the most researched dietary fibres and is most strongly associated as being effective in maintaining bowel regularity.
THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF WHEAT BRAN
There is a vast body of scientific evidence demonstrating the positive impact dietary fibre and specifically wheat bran has on health. There are more than 70 studies stretched over a period of 80 years looking at its health benefits. Below is a short summary of the key findings.
Colon and Breast Cancer
Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the world. The World Cancer Research Fund’s report on cancer and diet, physical activity and weight suggested that foods containing fibre decrease risk of colorectal cancer.
There are 3 main protective mechanisms of wheat bran against colon cancers. Firstly, it dilutes potential carcinogens (cancer-causing agents) because it creates a bulky stool which reduces access of carcinogens to the cells lining the colon. Secondly, it accelerates the transit time of matter passing through the colon so there is less exposure of faecal matter to the cells of the colon. Studies have also found that wheat bran is the best diluter and has the shortest transit time compared to pectin, guar gum, cellulose and oat bran. Thirdly, is the effect when wheat bran is broken down by bacteria (fermented) in the colon to Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) such as butyric acid which may inhibit the growth of tumours. Lastly, studies have also found that phytic acid as well as other plant compounds such as beta-sitosterol may be protective against colon cancer development.
In 2011 a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 studies was conducted which included a total of 1.9 million participants. They confirmed that a high intake of dietary fibre, particularly from cereal and whole grains (more so than fruit, vegetables and legumes), has a significant protective effect against colon cancer. There’s a 10% reduction in risk of colorectal cancer for each 10 g per day intake of total dietary fibre and cereal fibre.
Fibre has also been linked to a potentially protective effect in breast cancer. In a large study analysing adult women, they found that total fibre, particularly fibre from cereals and possibly fruit, is protective against breast cancer in premenopausal women. Possible mechanisms for this may be the role fibre plays in weight management and the potential for fibre to bind to oestrogen.
Although talks of reducing heart disease through diet has traditionally surrounded the intake of fats, however recent research has indicated that the quality of carbohydrates is equally important, particularly it’s dietary fibre content. In 2004 a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted which included more than 330 000 participants who were followed up over a period of 6 to 10 years. This high quality study concluded that a high fibre diet, particularly from cereals and fruits, significantly reduced risk of developing heart disease. They also concluded that a 10g increase in fibre was related to a coronary death risk reduction of:
- 27% for total dietary fibre
- 30% for fruit fibre
- 25% for cereal fibre
- 0% for vegetable fibre
Various studies have demonstrated the association between fibre intake and weight management. The main mechanisms being appetite regulation through increased satiety (feeling full and satisfied), decreased energy intake and increased energy lost through stools.
In a study of more than 74 000 healthy female nurses whose diets were tracked for 12 years, found that those with higher intakes of high fibre, whole grain foods gained less weight over time. They also found that a 12g increase in dietary fibre was associated with 3.5kg less weight gained over the 12 years.
A similar study which followed nearly 89 500 participants for 6.5 years found that diets higher in dietary fibre led to a decrease in weight and waist circumference change over time. The estimated weight change for a 10g per day fibre increase was:
- -39g/year for total fibre
- -77g/year for cereal fibre6
It Adds Bulk and Speeds up Transit Time
As you may have picked up already, wheat bran can provide several digestive health benefits but its ability to increase faecal bulk and accelerate the movement of matter through the colon is perhaps its greatest benefit for gut health. The average increase in daily faecal weight is approximately 5 g per 1 g wheat bran consumed compared to other fibres such as fruit, vegetables, psyllium and soy, according to both The European Food Safety Authority and the UK Scientific Advisory Committee. The benefits of wheat bran’s ability to add bulk and speed up transit time include:
- Toxins are removed quicker, are diluted and have less exposure to the lining of the colon
- Less time for dehydration and for stools to harden (leading to constipation)
- Equal pressure distribution (decreases risk of diverticulosis and haemorrhoids)
- Provides fibre for healthy bacteria to feed off and create protective compounds such as SCFAs
- Leads to overall digestive comfort1
Constipation and Diverticular Disease
It is also well established that dietary fibre plays an important role in preventing and treating constipation, which is a common problem worldwide, particularly in women and children. A Cochrane review of evidence has found that adding more wheat and bran fibre to the diet was effective at alleviating constipation during pregnancy.
Wheat bran has also shown to provide marked symptom relief of diverticular disease using a high fibre, low sugar diet that included 12 -14g of wheat bran per day.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
The 2008 NICE guideline consensus on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) states that wheat bran should not be recommended for people with IBS as it is ineffective in the management of symptoms, and may even increase symptoms for some people. If an increase in fibre is needed, it’s better to opt for soluble fibres such as psyllium or oat bran.
It has Prebiotic Activity
Your gut microflora (the collection of bacteria in your gut) is incredibly influential on your health and it can be modified by dietary changes such as increasing your prebiotic intake. Prebiotics are essentially food for the naturally occurring good bacteria in your tummy. Another major benefit of prebiotics as already mentioned is the production of SCFAs which are in actual fact also fuel sources for the cells lining your colon.
A study that was conducted at the University of Cardiff on 139 participants looked at how high fibre cereals could influence fatigue over two weeks. They found that people with higher fibre intakes experienced less emotional stress, fewer cognitive difficulties and less fatigue.
EFSA’S SCIENTIFIC OPINION ON WHEAT BRAN
In recognition of the weight of the evidence, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has released a scientific opinion and approved two health claims for wheat bran, given below:
- “Wheat bran fibre contributes to an increase in faecal bulk”
- “Wheat bran fibre contributes to a reduction in intestinal transit time” – where at least 10 g per day of wheat bran fibre should be consumed
In summary, wheat bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre and has extensively been studied and found to provide health benefits in terms of prevention of diseases such as colon and breast cancer, obesity, cardiovascular and digestive diseases. In light of this and the low average fibre intake of South African’s, it may be highly beneficial to incorporate foods containing wheat germ into your diet.
WHERE DOES FUTURELIFE® FIT IN?
FUTURELIFE Smart Fibre™ is the world’s first 2in1 breakfast to combine fibre and live beneficial cultures which are packed separately to retain their nutritional properties.
It contains HOWARU® Premium Probiotics, a blend of clinically studied probiotics that has been scientifically formulated to contain 2 of the most studied probiotic strains for gut and immune health, Lactobacillus Acidophilus NCFM® and Bifidobacterium Lactis HN019™. Each 1g sachet contains 1.2 billion CFU (colony forming units) HOWARU® Premium Probiotics at time of manufacture.
FUTURELIFE® Smart Fibre™ 2in1 also boasts the following features:
- High in dietary fibre, providing 10.3g per 45g serving,
- High in protein (6.7g per 45g serving) and contains 19 amino acids
- High in energy and carbohydrates
- Contains 38 key nutrients
- High in 12 vitamins and a source of 3 minerals
- low in saturated fat with only 0.3g of saturated-, and 1.6g of total- fat per serving
- Free from lactose, soy, cholesterol, trans fatty acids and tartrazine.
- Is non-GMO
- Wheat bran: its composition and benefits to health, a European perspective. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/09637486.2012.687366
- Fibre and cancer systematic review: http://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/343/bmj.d6617.full.pdf
- Dietary fibre and risk of CHD. http://www.mccordresearch.com/sites/default/files/research/Coronary_disease.pdf
- Weight loss. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/78/5/920.full.pdf+html
- Dietary fibre and changes in body weight. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/91/2/329.full.pdf+html
- Emotional health. Smith A et al. (2001). High fibre cereals reduce fatigue. Appetite 37: 1-3